Melatonin promotes osteoblast differentiation and bone formation

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Published on Wednesday, 16 March 2016

Abstract

Prior studies have demonstrated that the pineal hormone, melatonin, can stimulate chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in Drosophila SL-3 cells transfected with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct containing the response element of rat bone sialoprotein (BSP).

Based on these findings, studies were performed to determine whether melatonin could similarly modulate the expression of BSP in two cell lines, the MC3T3-E1(MC3T3) pre-osteoblast and rat osteoblast-like osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cell.

Initial studies demonstrated that MC3T3 cells grown in the presence of 50 nM melatonin underwent cell differentiation and mineralization by day 12 instead of the 21-day period normally required for cells grown in untreated media.

Melatonin increased gene expression of BSP and the other bone marker proteins, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP); osteopontin; secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine; and osteocalcin in MC3T3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner.

Levels of melatonin as low as 10 nM were capable of stimulating transcription of these genes when cells were grown in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid. Under these conditions, melatonin induced gene expression of the bone marker proteins; however, this does not occur until the 5th day after seeding the culture dishes.

Thereafter, MC3T3 cells responded to melatonin within 2 h of treatment.

The fully differentiated rat osteoblast-like osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells responded rapidly to melatonin and displayed an increase in the expression of BSP, ALP, and osteocalcin genes within 1 h of exposure to the hormone.

To determine whether melatonin-induced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation are mediated via the transmembrane receptor, MC3T3 cells were treated in the presence and absence of melatonin with either luzindole, a competitive inhibitor of the binding of melatonin to the transmembrane receptors, or pertussis toxin, an uncoupler of G(i) from adenylate cyclase. Both luzindole and pertussis toxin were shown to reduce melatonin-induced expression of BSP and ALP.

These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the pineal hormone, melatonin, is capable of promoting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of matrix in culture and suggest that this hormone may play an essential role in regulating bone growth.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication: Melatonin anticancer effects: Review (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: Key aspects of melatonin physiology: 30 years of research (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

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- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

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