Mechanisms of action of long-acting analogs of somatostatin

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Published on Monday, 29 July 2019

Abstract

The prolactin secreting rat pituitary tumor cell line, GH3, expresses high affinity receptors for both vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and somatostatin (SS14).

VIP induces prolactin secretion by GH3 cells, an action which is antagonized by SS14.

This in vitro model was used to examine the mechanism of action of two synthetic somatostatin analogs, D-Phe-Cys-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys-Thr-OH (octreotide; SMS 201-995) and cyclo(aminoheptanoyl-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr (benzyl)) (cyclic pentapeptide; CPP).

Octreotide and CPP bind to the pituitary somatostatin receptor with lower affinity than does SS14 (KD = 1.3 +/- 1.1; 80 +/- 29; 211 +/- 107 nM for SS14, octreotide and CPP, respectively).

SS14 and octreotide were equally effective as inhibitors of VIP-mediated accumulation of cAMP (40% and 45% inhibition, respectively, P<0.01).

SS14 and octreotide also inhibited forskolin-mediated accumulation of cAMP (42% and 40% inhibition of cAMP production, respectively; P<0.01).

The inhibitory action of somatostatin and octreotide on both VIP- and forskolin-mediated cAMP accumulation was blocked by pre-treatment of GH3 cells with pertussis toxin (P<0.001). Neither SS14 nor octreotide affects the apparent affinity of VIP for its specific receptors on GH3 cells; thus, the inhibitory action of SS14 and octreotide appears to be mediated at the locus of the G-protein-adenylate cyclase complex. In contrast, CPP inhibited VIP-mediated cAMP accumulation slightly, but had no effect on forskolin-mediated cAMP production. Pertussis toxin did not attenuate CPP affects on VIP-mediated cAMP accumulation.

However, pre-incubation of GH3 cells with CPP decreased the apparent affinity of receptors for VIP, suggesting that effects of CPP are attributable to interference with VIP binding rather than inhibition at the G-protein-adenylate cyclase complex.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pleural Mesothelioma: clinical records on 11 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma, stage T3-T4. Consideration of a case study;

- Excellent result in a Mesothelioma case treated exclusively with Di Bella Method for over 4 years and still treatment with positive results;

- A case of advanced Multiple Myeloma treated with Di Bella Method (DBM) into total remission for 13 years;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.