Targeted cytotoxic analogue of somatostatin AN-238 inhibits growth of androgen-independent Dunning R-3327-AT-1 prostate cancer in rats at nontoxic doses

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Published on Wednesday, 11 December 2019

Abstract

Receptors for somatostatin (SST) that are found on prostate cancers might be used for targeting of chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, doxorubicin derivative 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin (AN-201) can be linked to SST analogue RC-121 (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Thr-NH2) to form targeted cytotoxic SST analogue AN-238.

In this study, we evaluated the effects of AN-238 on the growth of SST receptor (SSTR)-positive androgen-independent Dunning R-3327-AT-1 prostate cancers in Copenhagen rats.

The dose range and tumor growth-inhibitory effects of AN-238 and AN-201 were investigated in preliminary experiments. Administration of cytotoxic radical AN-201 at single i.v. doses of 110, 125, and 150 nmol/kg resulted in 0, 77.7, and 100% mortality, respectively, within 6-10 days. Four weeks after the injection of 110 nmol/kg AN-201, mean tumor volume was reduced by 35.1 % (P < 0.05), as compared with controls. In contrast, a single i.v. injection of analogue AN-238 at a dose of 300 nmol/kg was nontoxic and remarkably potent in inhibiting the growth of Dunning AT-1 tumors, resulting in a 85.9% (P < 0.01) reduction in tumor volume after 4 weeks. Treatment with AN-238 extended the survival time of tumor-bearing rats from 52.0+/-3.75 to 91.8+/-3.70 days, corresponding to a 76.5% (P < 0.01) increase.

In a comprehensive experiment, we compared the effects of radical AN-201 at 115 nmol/kg, analogue AN-238 at 115 and 300 nmol/kg, carrier SST analogue RC-121 at 300 nmol/kg, and a mixture of AN-201 and RC-121 at doses of 300 nmol/kg administered i.v. Administration of AN-201 at 115 nmol/kg led to 90.0% mortality in 12 days, but animals treated with 115 nmol/kg of AN-238 showed no signs of toxicity, their tumor volume was reduced by 40.0% (P < 0.05), and their tumor weight was reduced by 42.8% (P < 0.01) after 4 weeks, as compared with controls. The dose of 300 nmol/kg of AN-238 was also nontoxic and diminished tumor volume by 80.9% (P < 0.01) and tumor weight by 82.0% (P < 0.01). No reduction in tumor growth or toxic effects was observed with carrier RC-121, but after the injection of unconjugated mixture of AN-201 and RC-121 at doses of 300 nmol/kg, all rats died within 4 days. Specific high-affinity receptors for SST were found on Dunning R-3327-AT-1 tumor membranes by radioligand binding assay and were identified by reverse transcription-PCR as SSTR2.

Our study indicates that cytotoxic SST analogue AN-238 can be targeted to SSTRs on tumors and produces a powerful inhibition of the growth of Dunning-AT-1 rat prostate cancer at doses that are nontoxic, whereas its cytotoxic component, 2-pyrrolinodoxorubicin, is toxic and ineffective.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer.