The significance of somatostatin analogues in the antiproliferative treatment of carcinomas

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Published on Tuesday, 14 May 2013

Abstract

Somatostatin is a cyclic tetradecapeptide hormone. It was initially isolated from bovine hypothalami.

Somatostatin inhibits endocrine and exocrine secretion, as well as tumor cell growth, by binding to specific cell-surface receptors. Its potent inhibitory activity is limited, however, by its rapid enzymatic degradation and the consequently short plasma half-life.

Octreotide is a short somatostatin analogue with increased duration of action compared with somatostatin. Preclinical studies have focused on the anticancer effects of octreotide and the related somatostatin analogues.

In vitro, at nanomolar concentrations, these analogues inhibit the growth of tumor cells that express high-affinity somatostatin receptors. Accordingly, such analogues potently inhibit the growth of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors in various rodent models.

The range of cancers susceptible to octreotide and related somatostatin analogues includes mammary, pancreatic, gastric, colorectal, prostate, thyroid, and lung carcinomas. Moreover, an indirect antiproliferative effect of somatostatin analogues is achievable in somatostatin receptor-negative tumors whose growth is driven by factors (e.g., gastrin, insulin-like growth factor-1) that become down-regulated by somatostatin.

The clinical effect of somatostatin analogues in terms of tumor response in cancer patients is a subject of controversy, however. Most responses have been seen in patients with pancreatic cancers.

 

 

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See also:

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.