Somatostatin inhibits Akt phosphorylation and cell cycle entry, but not p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in normal and tumoral pancreatic acinar cells

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Published on Tuesday, 03 September 2013

Abstract

Somatostatin, or its structural analog SMS 201-995 (SMS), is recognized to exert a growth-inhibitory action in rat pancreas, but the cellular mechanisms are not completely understood.

This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of SMS on p42/p44 MAP kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation and to analyze expression of some cell cycle regulatory proteins in relation to pancreatic acinar cell proliferation in vivo (rat pancreas), as well as in the well-established tumoral cell line AR4-2J.

We herein report that: 1) SMS inhibits caerulein-induced pancreatic weight and DNA content and abolishes epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated AR4-2J proliferation; 2) SMS only moderately reduces the stimulatory effect of caerulein on p42/p44 MAP kinase activities in pancreas and has no effect on EGF-stimulated MAP kinase activities in AR4-2J cells; 3) SMS repressed caerulein-induced Akt activity in normal pancreas; 4) SMS has a strong inhibitory action on cyclin E expression induced by caerulein in pancreas and EGF in AR4-2J cells and as expected, the resulting cyclin E-associated cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)2 activity, as well as pRb phosphorylation, are blunted by SMS treatment in both models; and 5) SMS suppresses mitogen-induced p27(Kip1) down-regulation, as well as marginally induces p21(Cip) expression.

Thus, our data suggest that somatostatin-induced growth arrest is mediated by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and by enhanced expression of p21(Cip) and p27(Kip1), leading to repression of pRb phosphorylation and cyclin E-cdk2 complex activity.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.