Intracellular signaling pathways involved in the cell growth inhibition of glioma cells by melatonin

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Published on Monday, 01 September 2014

Abstract

Melatonin is an indolamine mostly produced in the pineal gland, soluble in water, and highly lipophilic, which allows it to readily cross the blood-brain barrier.

Melatonin possesses antioxidant properties and its long-term administration in rodents has not been found to cause noteworthy side effects.

In the present work, we found that millimolar concentrations of this indolamine reduced cell growth of C6 glioma cells by 70% after 72 hours of treatment, inhibiting cell progression from G(1) to S phase of the cell cycle.

Intraperitoneal administration of 15 mg/kg body weight of melatonin to rats previously injected in the flank with C6 glioma cells reduces tumor growth by 50% 2 weeks after the implant. Inhibition of cell growth does not depend on melatonin membrane receptor activation whereas it seemingly relates to the reduction of intracellular basal free radical levels by 30%.

Increase of basal redox state of the cells and constitutive activation of tyrosine kinase receptor [receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)] pathways, including the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the Akt and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways, contribute to the progression of the gliomas leading to the constitutive activation of the redox-dependent survival transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB).

The antioxidant effect of melatonin in C6 cells is associated to inhibition of NF-kappaB and Akt, but not of ERK1/2.

The antiproliferative effect of the indolamine on these cells is partially abolished when coincubated with the PKC activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, thus indicating that the ability of melatonin to change cellular redox state may be inactivating the pathway RTK/PKC/Akt/NF-kappaB.

 

 

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See also:

- About Melatonin;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonisn, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.