Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on markers of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the normal colorectal mucosa of colorectal adenoma patients

Published on Thursday, 10 January 2019


To clarify the roles of vitamin D and calcium as potential chemopreventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, and to develop "treatable", pre-neoplastic, phenotypic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, we estimated the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 (1,000 IU/day [25 μg/day]) and calcium (1,200 mg/day), alone and in combination, on biomarkers of proliferation (mib-1), differentiation (p21), and apoptosis (bax [apoptosis-promoting] and bcl-2 [apoptosis-inhibiting]), in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa in a subsample of participants (n = 104) in a larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among colorectal adenoma patients.

The biomarkers were measured in rectal biopsies at baseline and after one year of follow up, using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis.

In the vitamin D plus calcium group relative to control, in the crypt differentiation zone (upper 40% of crypts), mib-1 expression decreased 24% (P = 0.28); p21 expression alone and relative to mib-1 expression increased 29% (P = 0.06) and 73% (P = 0.06), respectively; and bax expression relative to mib-1 expression increased 58% (P = 0.21).

The estimated vitamin D alone treatment effects were similar but of lesser magnitudes, and those for calcium alone were mixed. All estimated treatment effects on bcl-2 expression were close to the null.

These pilot study results support further investigation of whether:

1) vitamin D and calcium promote colorectal epithelial cell differentiation, reduce proliferation, and promote apoptosis in the normal-appearing human colorectal mucosa;

2) vitamin D and calcium act as chemopreventive agents against colorectal neoplasms;

3) mib-1, p21, and bax are potential "treatable", pre-neoplastic, biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.