Estrogens Modulate Somatostatin Receptors Expression and Synergize With the Somatostatin Analog Pasireotide in Prostate Cells

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Published on Friday, 08 March 2019

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western society.

Current PC therapies prevalently target the functions of androgen receptor (AR) and may only be effective within short time periods, beyond which the majority of PC patients progress to castration-resistant PC (CRPC) and metastatic disease. The role of estradiol/estradiol receptor (ER) axis in prostate transformation and PC progression is well established.

Further, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the mechanism by which somatostatin (SST) and somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) influence PC growth and progression.

A number of therapeutic strategies, such as the combination of SST analogs with other drugs, show, indeed, strong promise.

However, the effect of the combined treatment of SST analogs and estradiol on proliferation, epithelial mesenchyme transition (EMT) and migration of normal- and cancer-derived prostate cells has not been investigated so far. We now report that estradiol plays anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect in non-transformed EPN prostate cells, which express both ERα and ERβ. A weak apoptotic effect is observed in transformed CPEC cells that only express low levels of ERβ. Estradiol increases, mainly through ERα activation, the expression of SSTRs in EPN, but not CPEC cells. As such, the hormone enhances the anti-proliferative effect of the SST analog, pasireotide in EPN, but not CPEC cells. Estradiol does not induce EMT and the motility of EPN cells, while it promotes EMT and migration of CPEC cells. Addition of pasireotide does not significantly modify these responses. Altogether, our results suggest that pasireotide may be used, alone or in combination with other drugs, to limit the growth of prostate proliferative diseases, provided that both ER isoforms (α and β) are present.

Further investigations are needed to better define the cross talk between estrogens and SSTRs as well as its role in PC.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.