The role of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in advanced/metastatic thoracic neuroendocrine tumors

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Published on Thursday, 04 July 2019

Abstract

Bronchopulmonary (BP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a spectrum of tumors that develop from respiratory neuroendocrine cells and represent ~20% of all lung neoplasia and ~30% of all NETs. The only curative treatment is surgical resection.

For well-differentiated forms (typical and atypical carcinoids), medical therapy ranges from bioactive agents (e.g., somatostatin analogs), to biotherapy (e.g., everolimus), standard chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT).

PRRT with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs is an innovative treatment for inoperable or metastasized, well/moderately differentiated, NET. Initially developed for gastroenteropancreatic tumors, it is also used in BP-NET because these tumors express the target receptor.

Two decades of clinical trials with either 90Y-octreotide or 177Lu-octreotate, have demonstrated the efficacy of PRRT, as measured by tumor response, symptom relief and quality of life (QoL) improvement. PRRT with 90Y- and 177Lu-peptides is generally well-tolerated and adverse events (kidney and bone marrow) are modest.

The paper illustrates the history, technique and results of this treatment in the few dedicated studies and the many BP NET cases embedded within larger NET series.

The limitations of the present body of information are addressed, and the future perspectives, in terms of prospective studies required to define the position of PRRT in the therapeutic algorithm of BP-NETs and the need for predictive molecular biomarkers to guide future studies, are discussed.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer.