Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Intravenous, Intravesical, Rectal, Transdermal, and Vaginal Melatonin in Healthy Female Volunteers: A Cross-Over Study

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Published on Friday, 20 November 2020

Abstract

Introduction: We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties and safety of melatonin administered by alternative routes of administration.

Methods: This study employed a cross-over design in healthy female volunteers. Twenty-five milligrams of melatonin was administered intravenously, intravesically, rectally, transdermally, and vaginally. Blood samples were collected at specified time points up to 24 h following intravenous, intravesical, rectal, and vaginal administration, and up to 48 h following transdermal administration. Plasma melatonin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Sedation was evaluated by a simple reaction-time test, and sleepiness was assessed by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Adverse events were registered for each route of administration.

Results: Ten participants were included. We documented a mean (SD) time to maximal concentration of 51 (29) min for intravesical, 24 (20) min for rectal, 21 (8) h for transdermal, and 147 (56) min for vaginal administration. The mean (SD) elimination half-life was 47 (6) min for intravenous, 58 (7) min for intravesical, 60 (18) min for rectal, 14.6 (11.1) h for transdermal, and 129 (17) min for vaginal administration. The mean (SD) bioavailability was 3.6 (1.9)% for intravesical, 36.0 (28.6)% for rectal, 10.0 (5.7)% for transdermal, and 97.8 (31.7)% for vaginal administration. No significant changes in reaction times were observed following administration of melatonin by any of the administration routes. Increased tiredness was documented following transdermal administration only. No serious adverse effects were documented.

Conclusion: Rectally and vaginally administered melatonin may serve as relevant alternatives to standard oral melatonin therapy. Transdermal delivery of melatonin displayed an extended absorption and can be applied if prolonged effects are intended. Intravesical administration displayed, as expected, a very limited bioavailability. Melatonin administered by these routes of administration was safe.

 

NOTE: This publication cites (Ref. N.7 and N.44): Di Bella G., Mascia F., Gualano L., Di Bella L. - Melatonin anticancer effect: review. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:2410–2430.

Excerpt from: Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings:

"Melatonin use in cancer patients have started in 1974, when melatonin prepared according to Prof. Di Bella’s formulation, in 25 mg bottles, at high doses of a thousand milligrams per day for 11 days was administered to the patient. At the request of the patient and family members with informed consent, and with the consent of the hospital management and the relative consultant, in view of the lack of therapeutic alternatives, a forty-year old patient, admitted to the general medical ward at the Maggiore-Pizzardi Hospital in Bologna, with chemo and radiotherapy-resistant lymphosarcoma after repeated cycles of chemo and radiotherapy, with bilateral laterocervical, axillary lymph node mediastinic, bilateral inguinal and splenic progression, was very slowly (over approx. 8 hours) and intravenously administered 1000 mg of melatonin for 11 days. During the course of each day, the patient was intravenously administered 4 saline drips of 500 ml, each containing ten 25 mg bottles of freeze-dried melatonin, lasting 2 hours, totaling 1000 mg per day. No other drug of any kind was administered in order to ascertain the effect of the MLT without interference. A complete and stable objective response was observed and radiographiclly documented, recorded in the patient’s medical notes. The patient passed away in due to acute meningitis 15 years later. It was not possible to administer similar doses in other cases because the supplier (IFLO, Milan) stopped its production and because of the lack of hospital ward cooperation."

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication: Melatonin anticancer effects: Review (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: Key aspects of melatonin physiology: 30 years of research (from Di Bella's Foundation);


 


- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pleural Mesothelioma: clinical records on 11 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma, stage T3-T4. Consideration of a case study;

- Excellent result in a Mesothelioma case treated exclusively with Di Bella Method for over 4 years and still treatment with positive results;

- A case of advanced Multiple Myeloma treated with Di Bella Method (DBM) into total remission for 13 years;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.