Regulation of Prostatic Growth and Function by Peptide Growth Factors

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Published on Friday, 12 June 2020

Abstract

Polypeptide growth factors are positive and negative regulators of prostatic growth and function.

Expression and biological effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factors (TGFs) alpha and beta, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in the prostate have been extensively studied. EGF and TGF alpha, which share the same receptor, are strong mitogens for prostatic epithelial and stromal cells. Their paracrine mode of action in normal tissue and early-stage tumors is apparently altered towards an autocrine stimulation in hormone-independent tumors, which gain the ability to produce TGF alpha by themselves. TGF beta has a dual role in the regulation of prostatic growth. It inhibits growth of prostatic epithelial cells in culture and mediates programmed cell death after androgen withdrawal. However, advanced prostatic carcinomas become insensitive to the inhibitory effect of TGF beta.

Several members of the FGF family have been identified in the prostate. They are mainly or exclusively expressed in the stromal cells, and stimulate the epithelial cells.

In the rat Dunning tumor model, progression is accompanied by distinct changes in the expression of FGFs and their receptors. In the hyperplastic tissue, basic FGF (bFGF) is accumulated.

This growth factor is also a potent angiogenic inducer, expression of which may determine the metastatic capability of a tumor.

IGFs are paracrine growth stimulators in the normal and hyperplastic prostate. It is still under consideration whether prostatic cancer cells gain the ability to produce IGF-I by themselves and thus shift to an autocrine mode of IGF-I stimulation.

Growth factors also interact with the androgen-signaling pathway. IGF-I in particular, other growth factors as well, can activate the androgen receptor.

 

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- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

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