Ototoxicity caused by cisplatin is ameliorated by melatonin and other antioxidants

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Published on Tuesday, 01 March 2016

Abstract

The mechanism of the ototoxicity caused by cisplatin is based in the generation of reactive oxygen species, which interferes with the antioxidant protection of the organ of Corti. Conversely, the protection of the cochlea with antioxidants ameliorates the ototoxicity by cisplatin.

The ototoxicity produced by cisplatin can be reversible or persistent, depending on the age of the patient, cumulative doses, number of chemotherapy cycles, history of noise exposure, and deteriorating renal function.

We have obtained in rats an ototoxic chart utilizing cisplatin (10 mg/kg body weight injected intraperitoneally, once only).

Together with this treatment, the animals were treated with melatonin in the drinking water (10 mg/L) or injected subcutaneously (250 microg), and with an antioxidant mixture, injected subcutaneously, composed of 0.25 mg alpha-tocopherol acid succinate, 3 mg ascorbic acid, 1 mg glutathione, and 60 mg N-acetylcysteine.

The distortion product otoacoustic emissions were determined for a prolonged period of time for each animal. The ototoxicity produced by cisplatin was maximal from days 7 to 10 post-treatment, returning to normal values in a month.

When melatonin and the antioxidant mixture were present, the recovery was between days 10 and 15 post-treatment, independent of the means of administration of the pineal product.

We conclude that the ototoxicity caused by cisplatin is ameliorated by melatonin and other antioxidants.

 

 

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