Clinical applications of retinoids in cancer medicine

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Published on Tuesday, 24 May 2016

Abstract

The retinoids are compounds structurally related to vitamin A. The most extensively studied agents in cancer medicine include all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

In addition to several described immune regulatory functions, these agents may exert their antineoplastic effects through the regulation of tumor suppressor genes such as RAR-beta2.

The survival benefit provided to patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) after induction therapy with all-trans RA and the responses experienced by patients with cutaneous lesions from Kaposi's sarcoma and cutaneous T cell lymphoma treated with 9-cis RA and a selective rexinoid--bexarotene--respectively, led to their approval by the Food and Drug Administration during the last decade.

As chemopreventive agents, retinoids have proven to effectively regress laryngeal papillomatosis and oral leukoplakia lesions.

The ability of 13-cis-RA to prevent second primary malignancies in patients with carcinoma of the head and neck has also been demonstrated. Unfortunately, this intervention did not affect the primary tumor recurrence rates.

The toxicity and efficacy of retinoids administered in combination with other biological and cytotoxic agents have also been explored in patients with renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, myelodysplasia, prostate, cervix, and other malignancies with a broad range of reported responses.

Further characterization of the molecular processes modulated by these agents will serve to better define their role in the prevention and treatment of human cancer and to tailor specific targeted therapies in combination with other compounds. Newer and more selective retinoids and rexinoids are completing phase I and phase II studies and hold promising.

 

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH.