The roles of JNK1 and Stat3 in the response of head and neck cancer cell lines to combined treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil

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Published on Thursday, 03 May 2018

Abstract

We have used a combination of vitamin A (all-trans-retinyl palmitate), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiation to treat human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This chemoradiotherapy is called "FAR therapy."

In this study we examined the effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, and ATRA plus 5-FU on two HNSCC cell lines (YCU-N861 and YCU-H891) to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of FAR therapy.

ATRA at 1 mM (the order of concentration found in HNSCC tumors treated with FAR therapy) inhibited cell proliferation and caused G1 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. This was associated with a decrease in cyclin D1, an increase in p27(Kip1) and a reduction in the hyperphosphorylated form of retinoblastoma protein (pRB). With YCU-N861 cells, ATRA also caused a decrease in Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) and an increase in Bax.

Both ATRA and 5-FU activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1 and the combination of both agents resulted in additive or synergistic activation of JNK1, and also enhanced the induction of apoptosis. The YCU-H891 cells, in which the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway is constitutively activated, were more resistant to treatments with ATRA, 5-FU and the combination of both agents than YCU-N861 cells. A dominant negative Stat3 construct strongly enhanced the cellular sensitivity of this cell line to 5-FU but not to ATRA. In addition there is evidence that activation of Stat3 is associated with cellular resistance to radiation in HNSCC.

Therefore, the addition to FAR therapy of agents that inhibit activation of the Stat3 pathway may enhance the clinical response of patients with HNSCC to FAR therapy.

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide and/or Hydroxyurea tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.