Further evidence for chemopreventive potential of beta-carotene against experimental carcinogenesis: diethylnitrosamine-initiated and phenobarbital-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis is prevented more effectively by beta-carotene than by retinoic acid

Published on Wednesday, 05 December 2018


The comparative effectiveness of beta-carotene (BC) and retinoic acid (RA) was investigated against two-stage rat liver carcinogenesis initiated by a single injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg i.p.) followed by promotion with phenobarbital (PB, 0.05%) in a basal diet. BC (500 mg/kg) or RA (200 mg/kg) was administered per os daily throughout the entire experiment, before the initiation, or during the promotional stage.

Treatment with BC throughout the experiment or before initiation significantly reduced the incidence (p < 0.01), multiplicity (p < 0.05), and size of visible subcapsular hepatocyte nodules (HNs) and reduced (p < 0.001 or 0.05) nodular volume as a percentage of liver volume.

The results with RA were of lesser extent than those observed with BC. There was a considerable depletion of hepatic BC and total vitamin A (retinol + ester) in HNs and nonnodular surrounding parenchyma (NNSP) of rats subjected to the DEN-PB regimen than their control counterparts. Treatment with BC significantly elevated hepatic BC and total vitamin A contents in HNs and NNSP compared with DEN-PB control, and the elevation was proportional to the duration of BC treatment.

Long-term BC or RA treatment elicited a substantial decrement in reduced glutathione content and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and an increment in cytochrome P-450 content and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the HNs and NNSP, which were otherwise reversed in rats that received DEN-PB treatment alone.

Our results suggest that BC or RA has the potential to inhibit DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis through selective modulation of the antioxidant defense system and xenobiotic detoxification in the liver.

It is also apparent that the beneficial effect of BC or RA is primarily exerted on the initiation phase and secondarily during the promotional stage of DEN-initiated rat liver carcinogenesis and that BC affords a better chemopreventive response than RA.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Beta-Carotene or β-carotene in Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Selenium methonine, 40 μg capsules, twice a day);

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- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

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- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

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- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.