Calcium absorption across epithelia

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Published on Friday, 08 March 2019

Abstract

Ca(2+) is an essential ion in all organisms, where it plays a crucial role in processes ranging from the formation and maintenance of the skeleton to the temporal and spatial regulation of neuronal function.

The Ca(2+) balance is maintained by the concerted action of three organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, bone, and kidney.

An adult ingests on average 1 g Ca(2+) daily from which 0.35 g is absorbed in the small intestine by a mechanism that is controlled primarily by the calciotropic hormones. To maintain the Ca(2+) balance, the kidney must excrete the same amount of Ca(2+) that the small intestine absorbs. This is accomplished by a combination of filtration of Ca(2+) across the glomeruli and subsequent reabsorption of the filtered Ca(2+) along the renal tubules.

Bone turnover is a continuous process involving both resorption of existing bone and deposition of new bone.

The above-mentioned Ca(2+) fluxes are stimulated by the synergistic actions of active vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) and parathyroid hormone.

Until recently, the mechanism by which Ca(2+) enter the absorptive epithelia was unknown. A major breakthrough in completing the molecular details of these pathways was the identification of the epithelial Ca(2+) channel family consisting of two members: TRPV5 and TRPV6. Functional analysis indicated that these Ca(2+) channels constitute the rate-limiting step in Ca(2+)-transporting epithelia.

They form the prime target for hormonal control of the active Ca(2+) flux from the intestinal lumen or urine space to the blood compartment.

This review describes the characteristics of epithelial Ca(2+) transport in general and highlights in particular the distinctive features and the physiological relevance of the new epithelial Ca(2+) channels accumulating in a comprehensive model for epithelial Ca(2+) absorption.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Omega 3 Essential/Unsaturated Fatty Acids. From 1.5 grams up to 3.0 grams per day orally);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.