Gene expression networks underlying retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human retinoblastoma cells

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Published on Tuesday, 26 November 2019

Abstract

PURPOSE: To understand the genetic regulatory pathways underlying the retinoic acid (RA) induction of cone arrestin, gene array technology and other molecular tools were used to profile global gene expression changes in human retinoblastoma cells.

METHODS: Weri-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells were cultured in the absence or presence of RA for various periods. DNA microarray analysis profiled gene expression followed by real-time PCR and Northern and immunoblot analyses to confirm the change in expression of selected retinal genes and their gene products. Additional methodology included flow cytometry analysis, immunocytochemistry, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay.

RESULTS: DNA microarray analysis of approximately 6800 genes revealed RA-induced upregulation of cone-specific genes and downregulation of rod-specific genes in Weri-Rb-1 cells. Other significantly upregulated mRNAs included chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF1), retinoid X receptor (RXR)-gamma, thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta2, and guanylyl cyclase-activating protein (GCAP)-1. Real-time PCR and/or Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression changes of a subset of genes including the upregulation of a pineal- and retina-specific transcription factor, CRX. RA treatment also led to G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest and increased both the intensity of human cone arrestin (hCAR)-immunoreactivity and the number of apoptotic cells. The cell-cycle-arrest stage correlated with the observed microarray results in which the RA treatment downregulated critical genes such as cyclins (cyclin E, cyclin D3) and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK5, CDK10).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that RA induces a subpopulation of retinoblastoma cells to differentiate toward a cone cell lineage while selectively leading other cells into apoptosis.

 

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- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

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- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

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