GHRH Antagonist Causes DNA Damage Leading to p21 Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells

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Published on Thursday, 28 May 2020

Abstract

We investigated the mechanisms of inhibitory effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonist JMR-132 on the growth of HT29, HCT-116 and HCT-15 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

High-affinity binding sites for GHRH and mRNA for GHRH and splice variant-1 (SV1) of the GHRH receptor were found in all three cell lines tested.

Proliferation of HT-29, HCT-116 and HCT-15 cells was significantly inhibited in vitro by JMR-132.

Time course studies revealed that the treatment of human HCT-116 colon cancer cells with 10 muM GHRH antagonist JMR-132 causes a significant DNA damage as shown by an increase in olive tail moment (OTM) and loss of inner mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta Psi m).

Western blotting demonstrated a time-dependent increase in protein levels of phospho-p53 (Ser46), Bax, cleaved caspase-9, -3, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) and a decrease in Bcl-2 levels. An augmentation in cell cycle checkpoint protein p21(Waf1/Cip1) was accompanied by a cell cycle arrest in S-phase. DNA fragmentation visualized by the comet assay and the number of apoptotic cells increased time dependently as determined by flow cytometric annexinV and PI staining assays.

In vivo, JMR-132 decreased the volume of HT-29, HCT-116 and HCT-15 tumors xenografted into athymic mice up to 75% (p < 0.05) and extended tumor doubling time (p<0.001).

Our observations suggest that GHRH antagonist JMR-132 exerts its antiproliferative effect on experimental colon cancer cells through p21(Waf1/Cip1) mediated S-phase arrest along with apoptosis involving the intrinsic pathway.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

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- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

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- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment.