Differential expression of GHRH receptor and its splice variant 1 in human normal and malignant mucosa of the oesophagus and colon

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Published on Wednesday, 18 November 2020

Abstract

Recent evidence indicates that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal (GI) tumours.

The tumourigenic effects of GHRH appear to be mediated by the splice variant 1 (SV-1) of GHRH receptor as well as the full length pituitary type receptor for GHRH (GHRH-R).

We examined the protein and mRNA expression of GHRH-R and SV-1 in normal human tissues and tumours of the gastrointestinal (GI-) tract by immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR.

Squamous cells and squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus were negative for GHRH-R and SV-1, while Barrett's mucosa and adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus showed a strong expression of both receptors.

The expression of GHRH-R was absent in normal colonic mucosa other than neuroendocrine cells (NE) and lining epithelium (LE) but strong in tubular adenomas of the colon, while the staining for SV-1 was absent in cells other than NE. However, the expression of both receptors was significantly increased in tubulovillous adenomas and colorectal cancers. No differences were seen in protein levels for both receptors between normal and neoplastic tissues of the stomach, pancreas and liver. Because of low mRNA levels for both receptors in all samples tested, only a qualitative assessment could be made. However, mRNA for GHRH-R and SV-1 showed a near-perfect correlation with the assessment of receptor proteins by immunostaining.

Our study shows that in contrast to normal mucosa, transformed mucosa of the oesophagus and the colon expresses GHRH-R and SV-1.

This aberrant expression of GHRH-R and SV-1 in oesophageal and colorectal malignancies may provide a molecular target for a therapeutic approach based on GHRH antagonists.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);


 


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- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

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- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

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