Expression of prolactin receptors in normal, benign, and malignant breast tissue: an immunohistological study

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Published on Thursday, 01 April 2021

Abstract

Aims: Prolactin plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of normal breast epithelium, and possibly in the development of breast carcinoma. The effects of prolactin are mediated by its receptor; thus, alteration in the expression of this receptor could be important in studying the biology of breast cancer. This investigation was aimed at comparing the expression of prolactin receptors in normal, benign, and malignant breast tissue.

Material/methods: The expression of prolactin receptors was studied in paraffin wax embedded sections of 102 breast biopsies (93 female and nine male), using the monoclonal antibody B6.2, and the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. Six biopsies were normal, 34 had benign lesions, and 62 were malignant.

Results: In normal cases, prolactin receptor positivity was seen only on the luminal borders of the epithelial cells lining ducts and acini. In most benign lesions, variable degrees of luminal and cytoplasmic staining were seen. Cells showing apocrine metaplasia and florid regular ductal epithelial hyperplasia were mostly negative. In malignant cases, the staining pattern was mostly cytoplasmic and heterogeneous. Forty one of the 59 carcinomas in women showed a degree of positivity involving 10-100% of the tumour cells. A significant direct correlation was found between prolactin receptor and oestrogen receptor staining when only cases that scored more than 100/300 for the latter receptor, using the H scoring system, were considered (p = 0.0207). No correlation was found between prolactin receptors and progesterone receptors, patient's age, tumour size, tumour grade, or axillary lymph node status.

Conclusions: Prolactin receptors seem to be expressed at different cellular sites in normal, benign, and malignant breast epithelial cells. The receptor is expressed in more than two thirds of female breast carcinomas, suggesting that it may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The positivity is correlated with moderate and strong staining for oestrogen receptors in tissue sections, but not with other prognostic factors.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);


 


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- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

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- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment.