Retinoic acid downregulates Rae1 leading to APC(Cdh1) activation and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y differentiation

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Published on Friday, 02 July 2021

Abstract

In neuroblastoma cells, retinoic acid induces cell cycle arrest and differentiation through degradation of the F-box protein, Skp2, and stabilization of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p27. However, the mechanism responsible for retinoic acid-mediated Skp2 destabilization is unknown. Since Skp2 is degraded by anaphase-promoting complex (APC)(Cdh1), here we studied whether retinoic acid promotes differentiation of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by modulating Cdh1.

We found that retinoic acid induced the nuclear accumulation of Cdh1 that paralleled Skp2 destabilization and p27 accumulation. The mRNA and protein abundance of Rae1-a nuclear export factor that limits APC(Cdh1) activity in mitosis-decreased upon retinoic acid-induced inhibition of neuroblastoma cell proliferation.

Furthermore, either Rae1 overexpression or Cdh1 inhibition promoted Skp2 accumulation, p27 destabilization and prevented retinoic acid-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Conversely, inhibition of Rae1 accelerated retinoic acid-induced differentiation.

Thus, retinoic acid downregulates Rae1, hence facilitating APC(Cdh1)-mediated Skp2 degradation leading to the arrest of cell cycle progression and neuroblastoma differentiation.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);


 


- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis.