Alterations in Retinoic Acid Receptors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Clinical Implications

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Published on Friday, 04 November 2016

Abstract

The nuclear retinoic acid receptor may play a critical role in the process of lung carcinogenesis.

Alteration or loss of nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs) has been associated with progression in premalignant and malignant tissues and it is associated with malignant transformation in human cells.

Vitamin A derivates, such as retinoic acid, have emerged as adjuvant to therapy in several types of cancer with favorable effects.

Retinoic acid regulates the expression of target genes through the binding and activation of RARs, inhibiting growth proliferation.

Diverse studies have evaluated different retinoids alone or in combination with chemotherapy in lung cancer, from which results have been controversial with benefits observed only in the subpopulation with high levels of triglycerides.

Additionally, several large randomized trials using retinoids to prevent tobacco-related cancer have failed; due to the latter the use of retinoids in clinical trials remains controversial.

However they could reduce the risk of cancer development in non-smokers.

There is evidence that retinoids have different effects on lung cancer; still the identification of biomarkers could determinate their benefits as preventive or therapy agents.

This review describes the RAR alterations during the development of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and sets out the importance of several cancer treatments with retinoid compounds.

 

NOTE: This publication cites (Ref. N.116) Di Bella's Method in the publication: Norsa, A. and Martino, V. - Somatostatin, Retinoids, Melatonin, Vitamin D, Bromocriptine, and Cyclophosphamide in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Low Performance Status. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2006 Feb;21(1):68-73.

 

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- Great discoveries...;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonisn, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature.