RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis shows anti-tumor actions of melatonin in a breast cancer xenograft model

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Published on Friday, 01 February 2019

Abstract

Melatonin is a pleiotropic anti-cancer molecule that controls cancer growth by multiple mechanisms.

RNA-Seq can potentially evaluate therapeutic response and its use in xenograft tumor models can differentiate the changes that occur specifically in tumor cells or in the tumor microenvironment (TME).

Melatonin actions were evaluated in a xenograft model of triple-negative breast cancer.

Balb/c nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 tumors were treated with melatonin or vehicle. RNA-Seq was performed on the Illumina HiSeq. 2500 and data were mapped against human and mouse genomes separately to differentiate species-specific expression. Differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) was used to detect clusters of highly co-expressed genes.

Melatonin treatment reduced tumor growth (p < 0.01).

57 DE genes were identified in murine cells, which represented the TME, and were mainly involved in immune response. The WGCNA detected co-expressed genes in tumor cells and TME, which were related to the immune system among other biological processes. The upregulation of two genes (Tnfaip8l2 and Il1f6) by melatonin was validated in the TME, these genes play important roles in the immune system.

Taken together, the transcriptomic data suggests that melatonin anti-tumor actions occur through modulation of TME in this xenograft tumor model.

 

About this publication and Supplementary information.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.