Downregulation of AKT and MDM2, Melatonin Induces Apoptosis in AGS and MGC803 Cells

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Published on Friday, 29 March 2019

Abstract

Melatonin, a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, has a variety of biological functions, such as circadian rhythms regulation, anti-oxidative activity, immunomodulatory effects, and anittumor, etc.

At present, its antitumor effect has attracted people's attention due to its extensive tissue distribution, good tissue compatibility, and low toxic and side effects.

In the gastrointestinal tract, there is high level of melatonin and many studies showed melatonin has effects of anti-gastric cancer.

In this experiment, human gastric cancer cell lines AGS and MGC803 were used to investigate the intracellular molecular mechanism of melatonin against gastric cancer. After AGS and MGC803 have been treated with melatonin, the changes of cell morphology and cellular structure were observed under electron microscope.

Flow cytometer and apoptosis detection kits were used to analyze the effect of apoptosis on AGS and MGC803. The alterations of apoptosis-related proteins Caspase 9, Caspase 3, and upstream regulators AKT, MDM2 including expression, phosphorylation, and activation were detected to analyze the intracellular molecular mechanism of melatonin inhibiting gastric cancer.

In AGS and MGC803 cells with melatonin exposure, cleaved Caspase 9 was upregulated and Caspase 3 was activated; moreover, MDM2 and AKT expression and phosphorylation were downregulated.

Melatonin promoted apoptosis of AGS and MGC803 cells by the downregulation of AKT and MDM2.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.