Chondroitin sulphate enhances the antitumor activity of gemcitabine and mitomycin-C in bladder cancer cells with different mechanisms

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Published on Tuesday, 21 June 2022

Abstract

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer in Western countries.

The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer at the bladder surface non-specifically blocks the adherence of bacteria, ions and molecules to the bladder epithelium and bladder cancer cells express CD44 that binds GAG.

Currently, there are few options other than cystectomy for the management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer with intravesical chemotherapy using several drugs such as gemcitabine (GEM) and mitomycin-C (MMC) with poor prophylactic activity.

In this study, we investigated the effects of the GAG chondroitin sulphate (CS) on the growth inhibition of human bladder cancer cell lines HT-1376 and effects of the combination between GEM or MMC with CS. We have found that CS, MMC and GEM induced 50% growth inhibition at 72 h. Therefore, we have evaluated the growth inhibition induced by different concentration of CS in combination with MMC or GEM, respectively, at 72 h. We have observed, at Calcusyn analysis, a synergism when HT-1376 cells were treated with CS in combination with MMC or GEM, respectively, if used at an equimolar ratio. We have also found that CS/GEM combination induced a strong potentiation of apoptosis with the consequent activation of caspases 9 and 3. On the other hand, HT-1376 cells were necrotic if exposed to the CS/MMC combination and no signs of caspase activation was observed.

In conclusion, in the human bladder cancer cell line HT-1376 pharmacological combination of CS with GEM or MMC resulted in a strong synergism on cell growth inhibition.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Chondroitin sulfate, up to 3-4 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);


 


- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- A case of advanced Multiple Myeloma treated with Di Bella Method (DBM) into total remission for 13 years;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- A Retrospective Observational Study on Cases of Sarcoma Treated with the Di Bella Method: Rationale and Effectiveness;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- A retrospective observational study on cases of anaplastic brain tumors treated with the Di Bella Method: A rationale and effectiveness;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment.