All-Trans Retinoic Acid Stimulates Viral Mimicry, Interferon Responses and Antigen Presentation in Breast-Cancer Cells

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Published on Monday, 11 May 2020

Abstract

All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a recognized differentiating agent, has significant potential in the personalized/stratified treatment of breast cancer.

The present study reports on the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor activity of ATRA in breast cancer.

The work is based on transcriptomic experiments performed on ATRA-treated breast cancer cell-lines, short-term tissue cultures of patient-derived mammary-tumors and a xenograft model. ATRA upregulates gene networks involved in interferon-responses, immune-modulation and antigen-presentation in retinoid-sensitive cells and tumors characterized by poor immunogenicity. ATRA-dependent upregulation of these gene networks is caused by a viral mimicry process, involving the activation of endogenous retroviruses. ATRA induces a non-canonical type of viral mimicry, which results in increased expression of the IRF1 (Interferon Responsive Factor 1) transcription factor and the DTX3L (Deltex-E3-Ubiquitin-Ligase-3L) downstream effector. Functional knockdown studies indicate that IRF1 and DTX3L are part of a negative feedback loop controlling ATRA-dependent growth inhibition of breast cancer cells.

The study is of relevance from a clinical/therapeutic perspective. In fact, ATRA stimulates processes controlling the sensitivity to immuno-modulatory drugs, such as immune-checkpoint-inhibitors.

This suggests that ATRA and immunotherapeutic agents represent rational combinations for the personalized treatment of breast cancer.

Remarkably, ATRA-sensitivity seems to be relatively high in immune-cold mammary tumors, which are generally resistant to immunotherapy.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Omega 3 Essential/Unsaturated Fatty Acids. From 1.5 grams up to 3.0 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature.