Association Between Variation of Circulating 25-OH Vitamin D and Methylation of Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 2 in Colorectal Cancer

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Published on Monday, 15 June 2020

Abstract

Backgrounds: Colorectal cancer (CRC) results from the accumulation of epigenetic and genetic changes in colon cells during neoplasic transformation, which the activation of Wingless (Wnt) signaling pathway is a common mechanism for CRC initiation. The Wnt pathway is mainly regulated by Wnt antagonists, as secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) family. Indeed, SFRP2 is proposed as a noninvasive biomarker for CRC diagnosis. Vitamin D also antagonizes Wnt signaling in colon cancers cells. Several studies showed that vitamin D was able to alter DNA methylation, although this mechanism is not yet clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find an association between circulating 25-OH vitamin D (30th percentile of vitamin D) and the SFRP2 methylation.

Methods: A total of 67 CRC patients were included in the study. These patients were subdivided into two groups based on their 30th percentile vitamin D (20 patients were below, and 47 participants were above the 30th percentile of vitamin D). We investigated the SFRP2 methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), CRC tumor tissue, and adjacent tumor-free area. We also determined the relationship between SFRP2 methylation and methylation of carcinogenic and adipogenic genes. Finally, we tested the effect of vitamin D on the SFRP2 methylation in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines 116 (HCT116) and studied the association of neoadjuvant therapy under the 30th percentile vitamin D with SFRP2 promoter methylation.

Results: SFRP2 methylation in tumor area was decreased in patients who had higher levels of vitamin D. SFRP2 promoter methylation was positively correlated in tumor area with insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but negatively correlated with HDL-c. SFRP2 methylation was also correlated with T cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (TIAM1) methylation in tumor area and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in VAT. Treatment with vitamin D did not affect SFRP2 methylation in HCT116 cell line. Finally, neoadjuvant treatment was correlated with higher circulating 25-OH vitamin D and SFRP2 methylation under linear regression model.

Conclusion: Our results showed that higher circulating vitamin D is associated with low SFRP2 promoter methylation. Therefore, our results could suggest that vitamin D may have an epigenetic effect on DNA methylation. Finally, higher vitamin D could contribute to an improvement response to neoadjuvant treatment.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- A case of advanced Multiple Myeloma treated with Di Bella Method (DBM) into total remission for 13 years;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.