The Role of Vitamin D, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 in the Progression of Thyroid Diseases

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Published on Wednesday, 05 August 2020

Abstract

Background: Thyroid cancer (TC) is a common malignant tumor, however the role of total vitamin D: 25(OH)D, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Insulin Like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) in the development of TC is still unclear.

Aim: To assess the roles of 25(OH)D, PDGF and IGF-1 in the progression of thyroid diseases.

Methods: The serum levels of 25(OH)D, PDGF and IGF-1 were assessed in 70 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), 60 patients with benign thyroid nodules (BN) compared to 60 normal controls (NC) using ELISA technique.

Results: There was a significant decrease in the serum level of 25(OH)D in TC patients compared to NC (P<0.001) and BN patients (P=0.006). There was a significant increase in the serum levels of PDGF and IGF-1 in TC patients (P<0.001), and BN patients (P<0.001) compared to NC, while there were no significant differences between TC and BN (P=0.087, and 0.258; respectively). PDGF correlated significantly with IGF-1 (r=0.412, P<0.001), TSH (r=0.146, P=0.045), and inversely correlated with 25(OH)D (r= -0.156, P=0.013) and FT4 (r=-0.178, P=0.014). There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum levels of IGF-1 and FT4 (r=-0.172, P=0.017). Sensitivity and specificity for assessment of TC patients were (65.7% and 58.3%, P= 0.001) for 25(OH)D, (65.7% and 58.3%, P=0.021) for IGF-1, and (68.6% and 61.7%, P=0.006) for PDGF. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that serum 25(OH)D (OR=0.578, 95%CI= 0.426-0.783), IGF-1 (OR=1.019, 95%CI= 1.010-1.029) and PDGF (OR=1.007, 95%CI= 1.004-1.009) were considered independent risk factors for thyroid cancer (P<0.001, for all).

Conclusion: 25(OH) D, IGF-1 and PDGF are significantly different in TC and BN cases compared to control. They have an important role in the progression of TC. However, these data should be validated on a larger sample size.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Selenium methonine, 40 μg capsules, twice a day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide.