Prolactin and murine mammary tumorigenesis: a review

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Published on Wednesday, 30 October 2019

Abstract

It is unequivocal that prolactin is an influential hormone in murine mammary tumorigenesis.

The Berenblum hypothesis (7), a well-known theoretical model of tumorigenesis that depicts this oncogenic process as a two-step mechanism, i.e., initiation and promotion, is a conceptual scheme in which the action of prolactin in mammary tumorigenesis may be understood.

According to this conceptual model, prolactin would participate in both the initiation and promotion steps of mammary tumorigenesis.

In the initiation phase, variations in prolactin secretion appear to influence the metabolism of the mammary epithelium, so that the epithelium would be either more receptive to or refractory to an initiating agent (e.g., chemical carcinogen, physical carcinogens, oncogenic viruses, ets.) i.e., a permissive action.

In the promotion phase, prolactin may act as either a promoter or an antipromoter of the "transformed" mammary epithelium.

In promotion, the hormone may either directly or indirectly (via the ovary) stimulate mitotic activity of the "transformed" epithelium.

In antipromotion the hormone, in the presence of requisite hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids), may synergistically induce differentiation (e.g., lactation) in the "transformed" epithelium. A tumor would result in the former (promotion) but not in the latter (antipromotion) case. Whether or not prolactin is significantly influential in human breast tumorigenesis remains to be determined. This is an extremely important area of research which is justifiably receiving increased attention.

For if prolactin can be shown to influence human breast epithelium in a manner similar to its effect on rodent mammary tissue, then prophylactic and/of chemotherapeutic control of human breast tumorigenesis may be feasible by appropriate drug-mediated prolactin suppression.

 

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- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;