Melatonin Enhances the Usefulness of Ionizing Radiation: Involving the Regulation of Different Steps of the Angiogenic Process

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Published on Tuesday, 30 July 2019

Abstract

Radiotherapy is a part of cancer treatment. To improve its efficacy has been combined with radiosensitizers such as antiangiogenic agents.

Among the mechanisms of the antitumor action of melatonin are antiangiogenic effects.

Our goal was to investigate whether melatonin may modulate the sensitivity of endothelial cells (HUVECs) to ionizing radiation.

Melatonin (1 mM) enhanced the inhibition induced by radiation on different steps of the angiogenic process, cell proliferation, migration, and tubular network formation.

In relation with the activity and expression of enzymes implicated in estrogen synthesis, in co-cultures HUVECs/MCF-7, radiation down-regulated aromatase mRNA expression, aromatase endothelial-specific promoter I.7, sulfatase activity and expression and 17β-HSD1 activity and expression and melatonin enhanced these effects.

Radiation and melatonin induced a significant decrease in VEGF, ANG-1, and ANG-2 mRNA expression. In ANG-2 and VEGF mRNA expression melatonin potentiated the inhibitory effect induced by radiation.

In addition, melatonin counteracted the stimulatory effect of radiation on FGFR3, TGFα, JAG1, IGF-1, and KDR mRNA expression and reduced ANPEP expression.

In relation with extracellular matrix molecules, radiation increased MMP14 mRNA expression and melatonin counteracted the stimulatory effect of radiation on MMP14 mRNA expression and increased TIMP1 expression, an angiogenesis inhibitor.

Melatonin also counteracted the stimulatory effect of radiation on CXCL6, CCL2, ERK1, ERK2, and AKT1 mRNA expression and increased the inhibitory effect of radiation on NOS3 expression.

In CAM assay, melatonin enhanced the reduction of the vascular area induced by radiation.

Melatonin potentiated the inhibitory effect on the activation of p-AKT and p-ERK exerted by radiation.

Antiangiogenic effect of melatonin could be mediated through AKT and ERK pathways, proteins involved in vascular endothelial (VE) cell growth, cell proliferation, survival, migration, and angiogenesis.

In addition, radiation increased endothelial cell permeability and melatonin counteracted it by regulating the internalization of VE-cadherin.

Radiation has some side effects on angiogenesis that may reduce its effectiveness against tumor growth and melatonin is able to neutralize these negative actions of radiation.

Additionally, melatonin potentiated radiation-induced antiangiogenic actions on several steps of the angiogenic process and enhanced its antitumor action.

Our findings point to melatonin as a useful molecule as adjuvant to radiotherapy in cancer treatment.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Selenium methonine, 40 μg capsules, twice a day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Omega 3 Essential/Unsaturated Fatty Acids. From 1.5 grams up to 3.0 grams per day orally);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid, 2–4 grams, twice a day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pleural Mesothelioma: clinical records on 11 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma, stage T3-T4. Consideration of a case study;

- Excellent result in a Mesothelioma case treated exclusively with Di Bella Method for over 4 years and still treatment with positive results;

- A case of advanced Multiple Myeloma treated with Di Bella Method (DBM) into total remission for 13 years;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.