Growth-hormone signal transduction

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Published on Tuesday, 09 April 2019

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) has long been recognized as one of the principal factors that control postnatal growth. Advances made in the last 5 years have increased our understanding of the intracellular signaling mechanisms subsequent to GH binding.

The earliest event in GH signaling appears to be the binding of a single GH molecule by a pair of GH receptors (GHRs).

The dimerization of GHRs leads to the activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that associates with the cytoplasmic domain of GHR. It is thought that all signaling downstream from GHR depends on this initial activation of JAK2. Once activated, JAK2 tyrosyl-phosphorylates both itself and the cytoplasmic domain of GHR.

These phosphorylated tyrosine residues act as docking sites for various signaling molecules that contain Src homology 2 (SH-2) or other phosphotyrosyl-binding domains.

The signaling molecules that are recruited and activated by the GHR-JAK2 complex include signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) factors, the adapter protein Shc, and the insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) 1 and 2.

The recruitment and activation of these signaling intermediates leads to the activation of enzymes such as MAP kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase, protein kinase C, and phospholipase A2 and to the release of various second messengers such as diacylglycerol, calcium, and nitric oxide.

Ultimately, these pathways modulate cellular functions such as gene transcription, metabolite transport, and enzymatic activities that affect the GH-dependent control of growth and metabolism.

 

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