Development and potential clinical uses of human prolactin receptor antagonists

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Published on Thursday, 30 November 2017

Abstract

There is a large body of literature showing that prolactin (PRL) exerts growth-promoting activities in breast cancer, and possibly in prostate cancer and prostate hyperplasia.

In addition, increasing evidence argues for the involvement of locally produced (autocrine) PRL, perhaps even more than pituitary-secreted (endocrine) PRL, in tumor growth.

Because dopamine analogs are unable to inhibit PRL production in extrapituitary sites, alternative strategies need investigation. To that end, several PRL receptor antagonists have been developed by introducing various mutations into its natural ligands. For all but one of these analogs, the mechanism of action involves a competition with endogenous PRL for receptor binding. Such compounds are thus candidates to counteract the undesired actions of PRL, not only in tumors, but also in dopamine-resistant prolactinomas.

In this review, we describe the different versions of antagonists that have been developed, with emphasis on the controversies regarding their characterization, and the limits for their potential development as a drug. The most recently developed antagonist, Delta1-9-G129R-hPRL, is the only one that is totally devoid of residual agonistic activity, meaning it acts as pure antagonist.

We discuss to what extent this new molecule could be considered as a lead compound for inhibiting the actions of human PRL in the above-mentioned diseases.

We also speculate on the multiple questions that could be addressed with respect to the therapeutic use of PRL receptor antagonists in patients.

 

 

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See also:

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.