Novel vitamin D(3) analog, 21-(3-methyl-3-hydroxy-butyl)-19-nor D(3), that modulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and induction of PTEN in leukemic cells

Published on Thursday, 12 September 2013


The active form of vitamin D(3), 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of a variety of malignant cells.

A new class of vitamin D(3) analogs, having 2 identical side chains attached to carbon-20, was synthesized and the anticancer effects evaluated. Four analogs were evaluated for their ability to inhibit growth of myeloid leukemia (NB4, HL-60), breast (MCF-7), and prostate (LNCaP) cancer cells.

All 4 analogs inhibited growth in a dose-dependent manner. Most effective was 21-(3-methyl-3-hydroxy-butyl)-19-nor D(3) (Gemini-19-nor), which has 2 side chains and removal of the C-19. Gemini-19-nor was approximately 40 625-, 70-, 23-, and 380-fold more potent than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in inhibiting 50% clonal growth (ED(50)) of NB4, HL-60, MCF-7, and LNCaP cells, respectively.

Gemini-19-nor (10(-8) M) strongly induced expression of CD11b and CD14 on HL-60 cells (90%); in contrast, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (10(-8) M) stimulated only 50% expression. Annexin V assay showed that Gemini-19-nor and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion. Gemini-19-nor (10(-8) M, 4 days) caused apoptosis in approximately 20% of cells, whereas 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at the same concentration did not induce apoptosis. Gemini-19-nor increased in HL-60 both the proportion of cells in the G(1)/G(0) phase and expression level of p27(kip1). Moreover, Gemini-19-nor stimulated expression of the potential tumor suppressor, PTEN.

Furthermore, other inducers of differentiation, all-trans-retinoic acid and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, increased PTEN expression in HL-60. In summary, Gemini-19-nor strongly inhibited clonal proliferation in various types of cancer cells, especially NB4 cells, suggesting that further studies to explore its anticancer potential are warranted. In addition, PTEN expression appears to parallel terminal differentiation of myeloid cells.



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