Effects of acyclic retinoid on growth, cell cycle control, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, and gene expression in human squamous cell carcinoma cells

Published on Wednesday, 09 October 2013


We described recently the growth inhibitory effects of the novel compound acyclic retinoid (ACR) in human hepatoma cell lines (M. Suzui et al., Cancer Res., 62: 3997-4006, 2002).

In this study we examined the cellular and molecular effects of ACR on human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. ACR inhibited growth of the esophageal SCC cell line HCE7, and the head and neck SCC cell lines YCU-N861 and YCU-H891, with IC(50) values of approximately 10, 25, and 40 microM, respectively.

Detailed studies were then done with HCE7 cells. Treatment of these cells with 10 microM ACR caused an increase of cells in G(0)-G(1) and induced apoptosis. This was associated with two phases of molecular events.

During phase 1, which occurred within 6-12 h, there was an increase in the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) and p21(CIP1) proteins, and their corresponding mRNAs, and a decrease in the hyperphosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein.

During phase 2, which occurred at approximately 24 h, there was a decrease in the cellular level of transforming growth factor alpha, and the phosphorylated (i.e., activated) forms of the epidermal growth factor receptor, Stat3, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase proteins, and a decrease in both cyclin D1 protein and mRNA.

Reporter assays indicated that ACR inhibited the transcriptional activity of the cyclin D1, c-fos, and activator protein promoters. On the other hand, ACR markedly stimulated the activity of a retinoic acid response element-CAT reporter when the cells were cotransfected with a RARbeta expression vector. A hypothetical model explaining these two phases is presented.

The diverse effects that we obtained with ACR suggest that this agent might be useful in the chemoprevention and/or therapy of human SCCs.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment.