A prospective study of plasma prolactin concentrations and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer

Published on Tuesday, 21 December 2021


Purpose: Epidemiologic studies suggest that prolactin is associated with breast cancer risk in older women. Because of limited prospective data, particularly in younger women, we examined whether prolactin concentrations were associated with breast cancer risk among women 42 to 55 years (68% premenopausal) from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and then conducted a pooled analysis of three studies.

Patients and methods: The analysis included 377 cases of breast cancer diagnosed after blood draw and before June 2000; two controls were matched per case on age, menopausal status at blood draw and diagnosis, fasting status, and time of day and month of blood collection. These data were pooled with two previously published data sets from the NHS and NHSII cohorts (n = 1,539 cases, 2,681 controls; ages 32 to 70 years).

Results: Prolactin was modestly associated with an increased breast cancer risk (relative risk [RR], top v bottom quartile = 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.9; P for trend = .12). Risk estimates did not vary by menopausal status, tumor invasiveness, or estrogen receptor (ER) status. In the pooled analysis, the overall RR was 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6; P for trend = .002), and did not vary by menopausal status (P for interaction = .95). The risk was strongest for women with ER+ tumors (RR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.0; P for trend < .001). Correcting for within-person variability, the RR comparing the median of the top versus the bottom prolactin quartile increased from 1.3 to 1.7 for all women and from 1.5 to 2.1 for ER+ cases.

Conclusion: These data, in conjunction with experimental studies, indicate that prolactin likely is important in breast cancer etiology, particularly ER+ tumors, over a wide range of ages.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);


- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.