Vitamin D analogue TX 527 down-regulates the NF-κB pathway and controls the proliferation of endothelial cells transformed by Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus

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Published on Monday, 21 March 2016

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Kaposi sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus GPCR (vGPCR) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of KS, where it increases NF-κB gene expression and activates the NF-κB pathway. We investigated whether the less calcemic vitamin D analogue TX 527 inhibited the proliferation of endothelial cells transformed by vGPCR by modulation of the NF-κB pathway.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Endothelial cells transformed by vGPCR (SVEC-vGPCR) were treated with TX 527. Proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) and cell cycle by flow cytometry. mRNA and protein levels were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunoblot analysis respectively.

KEY RESULTS: TX 527, similar to bortezomib (0.5 nM), a proteasome inhibitor that inhibits the activation of NF-κB, reduced proliferation and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in SVEC-vGPCR. TX 527 like 1α,25(OH)2 D3 , biological active form of vitamin D, decreased the activity of NF-κB comparable with the effect of bortezomib. Time-response studies showed that TX 527 significantly decreased NF-κB and increased IκBα mRNA and protein levels. The increase of IκBα was accompanied by a reduction in p65/NF-κB translocation to the nucleus. These responses were abolished when vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression was suppressed by stable transfection of shRNA against VDR. In parallel with NF-κB inhibition, there was a down-regulation of inflammatory genes such as IL-6, CCL2/MCP and CCL20/MIP3α.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of the vitamin D analogue TX 527 in SVEC-vGPCR occur by modulation of the NF-κB pathway and are VDR dependent.

 

 

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See also:

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.