Melatonin regulates tumor aggressiveness under acidosis condition in breast cancer cell lines

Published on Friday, 25 January 2019


Breast cancer progression is composed of multiple steps that are influenced by tumor cell adaptations to survive under acidic conditions in the tumor microenvironment. Regulation of this cell survival behavior is a promising strategy to avoid cancer development.

Melatonin is a natural hormone produced and secreted by the pineal gland capable of modulating different biological pathways in cancer. Although the anti-cancer effects of melatonin are currently widespread, its role in the acid tumor microenvironment remains poorly understood.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low pH (6.7) on human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and the effectiveness of melatonin in acute acidosis survival mechanisms.

Cell viability was measured by a MTT assay and the protein expression of glucose transporter (GLUT)-1, Ki-67 and caspase-3 was evaluated by immunocytochemical (ICC) analysis following low pH media and melatonin treatment.

In both cell lines the viability was decreased after melatonin treatment (1 mM) under acidosis conditions for 24 h. ICC analysis showed a significant increase in GLUT-1 and Ki-67 expression at pH 6.7, and a decrease after treatment with melatonin for 12 and 24 h. The low pH media decreased the expression of caspase-3, which was increased after melatonin treatment for 12 and 24 h.

Overall, the results of the present study revealed melatonin treatment increases apoptosis, as indicated by changes in caspase-3, and decreases proliferation, indicated by changes to Ki-67, and GLUT-1 protein expression under acute acidosis conditions in breast cancer cell lines.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.