Evaluation of the radioprotective effects of melatonin against ionizing radiation-induced muscle tissue injury

Published on Friday, 17 May 2019


BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is a treatment method for cancer using ionizing radiation (IR). The interaction between IR with tissues produces free radicals that cause biological damages.As the largest organ in the human body, the skeletal muscles may be affected by detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. To eliminate these side effects, we used melatonin, a major product secreted by the pineal gland in mammals, as a radioprotective agent.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, a total of sixty male Wistar rats were used. They were allotted to 4 groups: control (C), melatonin (M), radiation (R) and melatonin + radiation (MR). Rats' right hind legs were irradiated with 30 Gy single dose of gamma radiation while 100 mg/kg of melatonin was given to them 30 minutes before irradiation and 5 mg/ kg once daily afternoon for 30 days. Five rats in each group were sacrificed 4, 12 and 20 weeks after irradiation for histological and biochemical examinations.

RESULTS: Our results showed radiation-induced biochemical, histological and electrophysiological changes in normal rats' gastrocnemius muscle tissues.Biochemical analysis showed that malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly elevated in R group (P<0.001) and reduced significantly in M and MR groups after 4, 12, and 20 weeks (P<0.001), However, the activity ofcatalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase(SOD)decreased in the R group and increased in M and MR groups for the same periods of time compared with the C group (P<0.001), whilemelatonin administration inverted these effects(P<0.001).Histopathological examination showed significant differences between R group for different parameters compared with other groups (P<0.001).However, the administration of melatonin prevented these effects(P<0.001).Electromyography (EMG) examination showed that the compound action potential (CMAP) value in the R group were significantly reduced compared to the effects in the C and M groups after 12 and 20 weeks (P<0.001). The administration of melatonin also reversed these effects (P<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Melatonin can improve biochemical, electrophysiological and morphological features of irradiated gastrocnemius muscle tissues.Our recommendation is that melatonin should be administered in optimal dose. For effective protection of muscle tissues, and increased therapeutic ratio of radiation therapy, this should be done within a long period of time.


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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Omega 3 Essential/Unsaturated Fatty Acids. From 1.5 grams up to 3.0 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid, 2–4 grams, twice a day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.