Melatonin promotes neuroblastoma cell differentiation by activating hyaluronan synthase 3-induced mitophagy

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Published on Monday, 08 July 2019

Abstract

Neuroblastoma is the second most common pediatric malignancy and has a high rate of spontaneous remission.

Uncovering the mechanisms underlying neuroblastoma cell differentiation is critical for therapeutic purposes.

A neuroblastoma cell line (N2a) treated with either serum withdrawal (<2.5%) or melatonin (>0.1 nmol/L) for 24 hours was used as a cell differentiation research model.

Interestingly, the hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) protein was induced in differentiated N2a cells. N2a-allografted nude mice received an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (40 or 80 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks).

The mean tumor volume in mice treated with 80 mg/kg melatonin was smaller than that in PBS-treated mice (1416.3 and 3041.3 mm3 , respectively, difference = 1625 mm3 , *P = 0.0003, n = 7 per group). Compared with the vector control group, N2a cells with forced HAS3 overexpression showed significantly increased neuron length (*P = 0.00082) and neurite outgrowth (*P = 0.00059). Intracellular changes in autophagy, including distorted mitochondria with abnormal circular inner membranes, were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Our study demonstrated that HAS3-mediated signaling activated by physiological concentrations of melatonin (>0.1 nmol/L) triggered significant N2a cell differentiation.

These results provide molecular data with potential clinical relevance for therapeutic drug development.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Omega 3 Essential/Unsaturated Fatty Acids. From 1.5 grams up to 3.0 grams per day orally);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid, 2–4 grams, twice a day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pleural Mesothelioma: clinical records on 11 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma, stage T3-T4. Consideration of a case study;

- Excellent result in a Mesothelioma case treated exclusively with Di Bella Method for over 4 years and still treatment with positive results;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.