Clinical Applications of Melatonin in Radiotherapy: a Review

Print
Published on Tuesday, 10 September 2019

Abstract

Radiotherapy is a treatment method for cancers using ionizing radiation (IR). Radiotherapy-induced complications to normal tissues have been major drawbacks.

One of the strategies for preventing or reducing these side effects is the use of natural radioprotectors such as melatonin. Melatonin is largely secreted in the pineal glands of mammals.

Studies have evaluated its radioprotective effect mostly using animal models.

However, in this review, we discuss the findings of various clinical studies that utilized melatonin in radiotherapy. Online databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar) and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to retrieve relevant clinical studies which utilized melatonin alongside radiotherapy.

The literature reviewed showed that melatonin administration prevented radiation-induced dermatitis, delayed the onset of oral mucositis, and improved treatment outcomes as well as patients’ quality of life after radiotherapy.

These studies reported minimal toxicities from melatonin administration. However, their results were not in agreement in terms of patient survival.

The application of melatonin in radiotherapy showed potentials for improving treatment outcomes as well as preventing or ameliorating radiotherapy-induced side effects.

We recommend further clinical trials for more insights especially in areas such as optimal melatonin dose and patient survival.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets. From 30-40mg/day up to 200mg/day orally in patients with advanced stage of cancer disease and/or patients without respond to traditional treatments);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- About Melatonin - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Variable Part - Selenium methonine, 40 μg capsules, twice a day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E, approximately 20 grams per day orally);

- Cancer and Vitamin E (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives - Approximately 60mg per day orally: 40mg per day Beta-Carotene/β-Carotene, 10mg per day ATRA and 10mg per day Axerophthol palmitate);

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives) - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid, 2–4 grams, twice a day orally);

- Beta-Carotene or β-carotene in Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Pleural Mesothelioma: clinical records on 11 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma, stage T3-T4. Consideration of a case study;

- Excellent result in a Mesothelioma case treated exclusively with Di Bella Method for over 4 years and still treatment with positive results;

- A case of advanced Multiple Myeloma treated with Di Bella Method (DBM) into total remission for 13 years;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.