Expression of somatostatin and its receptor 1-5 in endometriotic tissues and cells

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Published on Friday, 27 January 2023

Abstract

The present study aimed to detect the expression of somatostatin (SS) and SS receptor (SSTR)1-5 in tissues from patients with endometriosis (EMS).

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was applied to examine the expression of somatostatin gene in ectopic endometrial cells (EECs).

The expression of somatostatin receptor 1-5 in the ectopic endometrium (EE), eutopic endometrium and normal endometrium and their association with EMS staging were determined by immunohistochemistry.

The results indicated that the expression of SS in EECs was significantly higher compared with that in the control group. SSTR1-5 were expressed in the EE tissues from 30 patients with EMS, and the positive rates were 43.3, 70.0, 53.3, 50.0 and 96.7%, respectively, which were closely associated with EMS staging of the patients. The positive rates of SSTR1-5 expression in the eutopic endometrium from 12 patients with EMS were 33.3, 41.7, 58.3, 58.3 and 83.3%, respectively, while the positive rates of SSTR1-5 expression in the normal endometrium from 14 women without EMS were 7.1, 7.1, 21.4, 28.6 and 64.3%, which were lower than the positive rates of SSTR1-5 in the EE (43.3, 70, 53.3, 50 and 96.7%) and eutopic endometrial cells (33.3, 41.7, 58.3, 58.3 and 83.3%).

In conclusion, SS was highly expressed in EECs. SSTR1-5 were expressed in the ectopic as well as eutopic endometrium, and low or moderate expression of SSTR1-4 and high expression of SSTR5 were detected in the ectopic and eutopic endometrial tissues, while low expression of SSTR1-4 and partial expression of SSTR5 were detected in normal endometrium.

The positive rates of expression of SSTR1-5 in the EE cells and eutopic endometrium were higher than those in the normal endometrium. The expression of all the subtypes of SSTR in the EE tissues was closely associated with EMS staging.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;


 


- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of somatostatin, curcumin, and quercetin on the fatty acid profile of breast cancer cell membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2020 Sep: Two neuroendocrine G protein-coupled receptor molecules, somatostatin and melatonin: Physiology of signal transduction and therapeutic perspectives (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);


 


- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- A retrospective observational study on cases of anaplastic brain tumors treated with the Di Bella Method: A rationale and effectiveness;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature.