Laryngeal Neuroendocrine Tumor With Elevated Serum Calcitonin: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge. Case Report and Review of Literature

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Published on Sunday, 09 August 2020

Abstract

Introduction: Laryngeal neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a rare group of NENs of the neck, which commonly show immunostaining for calcitonin. Laryngeal NENs with calcitonin hypersecretion and lymph node metastases represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We report a complex case of laryngeal NEN with calcitonin hypersecretion and a review of the literature.

Case Presentation: A 59-year-old man presented with dysphagia, dyspnea, and lateral cervical mass; he was a smoker. At first imaging, a laryngeal lesion with lateral cervical lymphadenopathies was found, and it resulted as a moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (G2), Ki67 = 5%, positive for calcitonin. Increased levels of serum calcitonin (50 pg/ml) were found. The patient started somatostatin analogs for lesions positivity to somatostatin receptor-based imaging. After 5 months, the disease progressed at 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET-CT, and also new painful cutaneous lesions occurred. Considering high serum levels of calcitonin, differential diagnosis with MTC was required. Patient performed a thyroid color Doppler ultrasound, nodule fine needle aspiration, calcitonin dosage in fine needle washout fluid, and a calcium gluconate stimulation test. After multidisciplinary evaluation, we decided to perform a total thyroidectomy associated with lateral cervical lymphadenectomy and resection of skin metastases. No MTC was found. Two of the five resected lymph nodes, left upper parathyroid, and skin lesions were metastases of NEN G2, positive for calcitonin. After 2 months, new painful skin lesions occurred, and a target therapy with everolimus 10 mg/day was started. After 6 months of therapy, partial metabolic response with a reduction of 53.7% of radiotracer uptake at primary tumor was detected together with an improvement of patient's quality of life.

Conclusions: The present case is the seventh described in the literature of laryngeal NEN associated with elevated serum calcitonin levels and the first case with parathyroid metastasis, suggesting the importance of a correct differential diagnosis between MTC and calcitonin-secreting laryngeal NEN, using an integrated approach of biochemistry and advanced imaging. This is also the first time that somatostatin analogs and then everolimus were used in this setting, resulting in clinical and partial metabolic response.

 

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See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication, 2018 Jul: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2018 Sep: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Aug: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication, 2019 Sep: Effects of Somatostatin and Vitamin C on the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Cancer Cell Membranes (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Calcium, 2 grams per day, orally);

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide.