Vitamin A derivatives in the prevention and treatment of human cancer

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Published on Friday, 06 May 2016

Abstract

Vitamin A is essential for normal cellular growth and differentiation.

A vast amount of laboratory data have clearly demonstrated the potent antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects of vitamin A and the synthetic analogues (retinoids).

Recent in-vitro work has led to the exciting proposal that protein kinase-C may be centrally involved in many of retinoids' anticancer actions including the effects on ornithine decarboxylase induction, intracellular polyamine levels, and epidermal growth factor receptor number.

Several intervention trials have clearly indicated that natural vitamin A at clinically tolerable doses has only limited activity against human neoplastic processes. Therefore, clinical work has focused on the synthetic derivatives with higher therapeutic indexes.

In human cancer prevention, retinoids have been most effective for skin diseases, including actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, dysplastic nevus syndrome, and basal cell carcinoma.

Several noncutaneous premaligancies, however, are currently receiving more attention in retinoid trials.

Definite retinoid activity has been documented in oral leukoplakia, laryngeal papillomatosis, superficial bladder carcinoma, cervical dysplasia, bronchial metaplasia, and preleukemia.

Significant therapeutic advances are also occurring with this class of drugs in some drug-resistant malignancies and several others that have become refractory, including advanced basal cell cancer, mycosis fungoides, melanoma, acute promyelocytic leukemia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and of the head and neck.

This report comprehensively presents the clinical data using retinoids as anticancer agents in human premalignant disorders and outlines the ongoing and planned studies with retinoids in combination and adjuvant therapy.

 

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives):

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH.