Mechanisms Underlying Tumor Suppressive Properties of Melatonin

Print
Published on Friday, 03 August 2018

Abstract

There is considerable evidence that melatonin may be of use in the prevention and treatment of cancer. This manuscript will review some of the human, animal and cellular studies that provide evidence that melatonin has oncostatic properties.

Confirmation that melatonin mitigates pathogenesis of cancer will be described from both direct study of its effects on carcinogenesis, and from indirect findings implicating disruption of the circadian cycle.

A distinction is made between the role of melatonin in preventing the initiation of the tumorigenic pathway and the ability of melatonin to retard the progression of cancer.

Melatonin appears to slow down the rate of advancement of established tumors and there is evidence that it constitutes a valuable complement to standard pharmacological and radiation treatment modalities.

There are instances of the beneficial outcomes in cancer treatment which utilize a range of hormones and vitamins, melatonin being among the constituents of the mix. While these complex blends are empirically promising, they are only briefly mentioned here in view of the confounding influence of a multiplicity of agents studied simultaneously.

The last section of this review examines the molecular mechanisms that potentially underlie the oncostatic effects of melatonin.

Alterations in gene expression following activation of various transcription factors, are likely to be an important mediating event. These changes in gene activity not only relate to cancer but also to the aging process which underlies the onset of most tumors.

In addition, epigenetic events such as modulation of histone acetylation and DNA methylation patterns throughout the lifespan of organisms need to be considered.

The antioxidant and immunoregulatory roles of melatonin may also contribute to its cancer modulatory properties. Naturally, these mechanisms overlap and interact extensively. Nevertheless, in the interest of clarity and ease of reading, each is discussed as a separate topic section.

The report ends with some general conclusions concerning the clinical value of melatonin which has been rather overlooked and understudied.

 

NOTE: This publication cites DBM (The Di Bella Method):

About this publication.

See also:

- About Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Melatonin tablets);

- Melatonin with adenosine solubilized in water and stabilized with glycine for oncological treatment - technical preparation, effectivity and clinical findings;

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide and/or Hydroxyurea tablets, one or two per day);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Vitamin C/Ascorbic Acid, 2–4 grams per day, orally);

- Vitamin D (analogues and/or derivatives) and cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.