Effects of all-trans-retinoic acid and 13-cis-retinoic acid on breast-cancer cell lines: growth inhibition and apoptosis induction

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Published on Thursday, 26 July 2018

Abstract

Interest has been increasingly focused on all-trans-retinoic acid (tRA) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in cancer chemoprevention and treatment.

We have examined the in vitro effects of these 2 retinoic acids (RAs) on human breast-cancer cell lines MCF-7 and ZR-75.1 (both estrogen-receptor-positive, ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen-receptor-negative, ER-), in terms of inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

Both retinoic acids exerted an evident dose-dependent growth inhibition, although in the ER- cell line the anti-proliferative effect was obtained only with the highest concentration used; the anti-proliferative activity of tRA was more evident than 13cRA on all 3 tested cell lines. tRA and 13cRA induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, but not in ZR-75.1.

The apoptotic phenomenon was clearly time-dependent, and in our experience it was not related to the arrest in a specific phase of cell cycle. After treatment with RAs the levels of bcl-2 were reduced in MCF-7, while in ZR-75.1 and in MDA-MB-231 no treatment-related modifications were observed.

An analysis of estrogen-receptor status, used as a marker of differentiation, demonstrated that after treatment with RAs the levels of estrogen receptor (ER) decreased in ZR-75.1 only.

Our study indicates that the anti-proliferative effects of RAs are sustained by induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, while in ZR-75.1 cells an induction of differentiation without apoptosis was the prevalent mechanism of growth inhibition.

Our results encourage further studies on in vivo effects of these retinoids in breast cancer.

 

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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E);

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response.