Somatostatin analogs for diagnosis and treatment of cancer

Print
Published on Sunday, 30 March 2014

Abstract

Somatostatin (SRIF) is a cyclic tetradecapeptide hormone initially isolated from ovine hypothalami. It inhibits endocrine and exocrine secretion, as well as tumor cell growth, by binding to specific cell surface receptors. Its potent inhibitory activity, however, is limited by its rapid enzymatic degradation and the consequent short plasma half-life.

Octreotide is a short SRIF analog with increased duration of action compared to SRIF. Octreotide is approved for the treatment of acromegaly, amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation-omas, complications of pancreatic surgery and severe forms of diarrhea.

Preclinical studies have focussed on the anticancer effects of octreotide and the related SRIF analogs BIM 23014 and RC-160. In vitro at nanomolar concentrations, these analogs inhibit the growth of tumor cells that express high affinity SRIF receptors. Accordingly, SRIF analogs, such as octreotide, potently inhibit the growth of SRIF receptor-positive tumors in various rodent models, and, in particular, xenotransplanted human tumors in nude mice.

The range of cancers susceptible to octreotide and related SRIF analogs includes mammary, pancreatic, colorectal and lung malignancies. Moreover, an indirect antiproliferative effect of SRIF analogs is achievable in SRIF receptor-negative tumors, whose growth is driven by factors (gastrin, insulin-like growth factor-1, etc.) that are downregulated by SRIF.

The use of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs represents a new diagnostic approach. [111In-DTPA]octreotide was developed for gamma camera imaging of SRIF receptor-positive malignancies, such as gasteroenteropancreatic tumors. Visualization of SRIF receptor-positive tumors in humans is emerging as an important methodology, both in tumor staging and predicting therapeutic response to octreotide.

Recently, five SRIF receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5) have been cloned, all of which bind SRIF with high affinity. In contrast, SRIF receptor subtypes 1-5 have different binding profiles for short SRIF analogs. Octreotide, SSTR5, show moderate affinity for SSTR3 and fail to bind with high affinity to the other subtypes (SSTR1 and 4). Accordingly, the oncological profile of these three analogs is apparently similar.

In conclusion, somatostatin analogs are a promising class of compounds for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Current work is focussed on the identification of further SRIF receptor subtype-selective analogs with potential in oncology.

 

About this publication.

See also:

- Official Web Site: The Di Bella Method;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Somatostatin, Octreotide, Sandostatin LAR, analogues and/or derivatives);

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences - In vitro, review and in vivo publications;

- Publication: Over-Expression of GH/GHR in Breast Cancer and Oncosuppressor Role of Somatostatin as a Physiological Inhibitor (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: The over-expression of GH/GHR in tumour tissues with respect to healthy ones confirms its oncogenic role and the consequent oncosuppressor role of its physiological inhibitor, somatostatin: a review of the literature (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- Publication: The Entrapment of Somatostatin in a Lipid Formulation: Retarded Release and Free Radical Reactivity (from Di Bella's Foundation);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Bromocriptine and/or Cabergoline);

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Cyclophosphamide 50mg tablets and/or Hydroxyurea 500mg tablets, one or two per day);

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- The Di Bella Method DBM improved survival objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 23 tumours of the head and neck;

- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Long-Lasting Remission with Combination of Cyclophosphamide, Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, Melatonin, and ACTH;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with low performance status;

- Somatostatin, retinoids, melatonin, vitamin D, bromocriptine, and cyclophosphamide in chemotherapy-pretreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and low performance status;

- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma: a complete and objective response;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- The Synergism of Somatostatin, Melatonin, Vitamins Prolactin and Estrogen Inhibitors Increased Survival, Objective Response and Performance Status In 297 Cases of Breast Cancer;

- Complete objective response, stable for 5 years, with the Di Bella Method, of multiple-metastatic carcinoma of the breast;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.