Degradation of RXRs influences sensitivity of rat osteosarcoma cells to the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol

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Published on Monday, 21 March 2016

Abstract

Several cell lines, including ROS17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma (ROS) cells, contain functional VDRs and RXRs but are resistant to the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and retinoids.

We explored the role of receptor degradation in this hormone resistance. Results of transactivation assays indicated that ROS cells contain insufficient amounts of RXR to activate a DR-1 reporter, and Western blot analyses of cell extracts showed that the degradation of RXR is accelerated and produces an aberrant 45-kDa RXR.

We stably expressed functional fluorescent chimeras of VDR and RXR [green fluorescent protein (GFP)-VDR; yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-RXR] to evaluate degradation mechanisms and the impact of excess receptor expression on antiproliferative effects. Microscopy showed a diminished expression of YFP-RXR in ROS cells compared with the expression in CV-1 cells.

Treatment with inhibitors of proteasomal degradation (lactacystin and MG132) selectively enhanced GFP-VDR and YFP-RXR expression and also increased the endogenous levels of VDR and RXR. Expression of GFP-VDR had no effect on the sensitivity of ROS cells to calcitriol.

Increases of RXR levels by YFP-RXR expression, drug treatments, or the combination of the two, however, restored the growth-inhibitory effects of calcitriol and 9-cis-RA and restored p21 induction by calcitriol.

These studies revealed that an accelerated and aberrant RXR degradation could cause resistance to the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and retinoids in ROS cells.

 

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See also:

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- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Dihydrotachysterol, Alfacalcidol, synthetic Vitamin D3);

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- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - All-Trans Retinoic Acid, Analogues and/or Derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy;

- The Di Bella Method (A Fixed Part - Alpha tocopheryl acetate/Vitamin E);

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up.