Suppression of growth by all-trans retinoic acid requires prolonged induction of interferon regulatory factor 1 in cervical squamous carcinoma (SiHa) cells

Published on Friday, 10 June 2016


All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) suppresses growth of cervical dysplasias in vivo, although the sensitivity to retinoids is frequently lost during cervical carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that prolonged treatment or use of higher doses of retinoids might offer favorable response rates.

We found SiHa cervical squamous carcinoma cells that were virtually resistant to ATRA-induced growth-inhibitory effects at physiological doses (10(-7 to) 10(-6) M) to be more responsive at pharmacological doses (10(-5 to) 10(-4) M).

The growth inhibition by high-dose (10(-4) M) ATRA was associated with a sustained activation of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1), while a low dose (10(-6) M) of ATRA activated IRF-1 only transiently. Antisense IRF-1 inhibited the high-dose (10(-4) M), ATRA-mediated growth arrest; forced expression of IRF-1 caused a significant reduction in cell growth.

High-dose (10(-4) M) ATRA increased binding of NF-kappaB and STAT1 proteins to sequences that originated from the IRF-1 promoter region, while low-dose (10(-6) M) ATRA induced only NF-kappaB binding.

A delayed tyrosine phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) was observed after high-dose (10(-4) M) but not low-dose (10(-6) M) ATRA treatment. In agreement with this, induction of IRF-1 mRNA by ATRA was only modest and transient in a STAT1 knockout cell line, suggesting the importance of STAT1 in sustained IRF-1 expression.

Our data showed that ATRA is capable of inducing dose-dependent cellular changes, which might be appropriate to overcome resistance to retinoids that frequently develops during cervical carcinogenesis.



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See also:

- All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA - analogues and/or derivatives);

- Solution of retinoids in vitamin E in the Di Bella Method biological multitherapy.