Mechanisms of inhibition of growth of human pancreatic carcinoma implanted in nude mice by somatostatin receptor subtype 2

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Published on Tuesday, 01 November 2016

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Several studies reported that somatostatin receptor subtypes, especially subtype 2 (SSTR2), exerted their cytostatic and/or cytotoxic effects on various types of tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of SSTR2 gene transfer to the pancreatic cancer cell line PC-3 and the mechanisms involved in this effect.

METHODS: The full-length human SSTR2 cDNA was introduced into pancreatic cancer cell line PC-3 by lipofectamine-mediated transfection; positive clones were screened by G418, and stable expression of SSTR2 was detected by the immunohistochemical SABC method and RT-PCR. Athymic mice were separately xenografted with SSTR2-expressing cells (experimental group), vector control, and mock control cells. TUNEL assay was used to determine the apoptotic index (AI) in the tumors of these groups. The immunohistochemical SP method was used to determine expression of apoptosis-regulating genes Bcl-2 and Bax and re-expression of SSTR2 and to assess intratumoral microvessel density (MVD). Moreover, tumor volume and weight were compared among these 3 groups.

RESULTS: Restoration of SSTR2 was observed in the experimental group both in vitro and in vivo. The AI was significantly higher in the experimental group (3.39 +/- 0.84%) compared with that in the vector control (0.69 +/- 0.08%) and mock control (0.68 +/- 0.09%) (P<0.05). MVD was significantly lower in the experimental group (6.30 +/- 1.71) than that in the vector control (12.64 +/- 1.69) and mock control (13.50 +/- 1.86) (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant decrease in Bcl-2 and increase in Bax protein expression were detected in the experimental group compared with the vector control and mock control (P<0.05). A significant negative correlation of protein expression between Bcl-2/Bax ratio and SSTR2 was observed in these tumors (P<0.05). Tumor volume and weight were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the vector control and mock control (P<0.05) groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the vector control and mock control (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Re-expression of the SSTR2 gene, the expression of which is frequently lost in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, induces apoptosis, which may be mediated via down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax (alteration of Bcl-2/Bax ratio) and inhibits tumor angiogenesis in pancreatic carcinoma, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth.

 

 

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See also:

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer.