Somatostatin, its receptors and analogs, in lung cancer

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Published on Friday, 15 December 2017

Abstract

Despite developments in diagnosis and treatment, lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in Europe and North America. Due to increasing cigarette consumption, the incidence of the disease and resultant mortality is rising dramatically in women.

Novel approaches to the management of lung cancer are urgently required. Somatostatin is a tetradecapeptide first identified in the pituitary and subsequently throughout the body particularly in neuroendocrine cells of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system.

The peptide has numerous functions including inhibition of hormone release, immunomodulation and neurotransmission and is an endogenous inhibitor of cell proliferation and angiogenesis.

Somatostatin and its analogs, including octreotide (SMS 201-995), somatuline (BIM 23014) and vapreotide (RC-160), act by binding to specific somatostatin receptors (SSTR) of which there are 5 principal subtypes, SSTR-1-5.

Although elevated plasma somatostatin levels may be detected in 14-15% of patients, tumor cell expression appears rare. SSTR may be expressed by lung tumors, particularly small cell lung cancer and bronchial carcinoid disease.

[(111)In]pentetreotide scintigraphy may have a role to play in the localization and staging of lung cancers both before and following treatment, and in detecting relapsed disease. The potential role of radiolabelled somatostatin analogs as radiotherapeutic agents in the management of lung cancer is currently being explored.

Somatostatin analog therapy results in significant growth inhibition of both SSTR-positive and SSTR-negative lung tumors in vivo.

Recent work indicates that these agents may enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of solid tumors including lung cancer.

 

 

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See also:

- Somatostatin in oncology, the overlooked evidences;

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- Observations on the Report of a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with lymph node, hepatic and osseus metastasis;

- Congenital fibrosarcoma in complete remission with Somatostatin, Retinoids, Vitamin D3, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Calcium, Chondroitin sulfate associated with low doses of Cyclophosphamide in a 14-year Follow Up;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) in the treatment of prostate cancer: a preliminary retrospective study of 16 patients and a review of the literature;

- Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: clinical records on 17 patients treated with Di Bella's Method;

- The Di Bella Method Increases by the 30% the survival rate for Pancreas tumors and for this reason should be proposed as first line therapy for this type of cancer;

- Cyclophosphamide plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptin, Retinoids, Melatonin and ACTH in the Treatment of Low-grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas at Advanced Stage: Results of a Phase II Trial;

- Relapse of High-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Melatonin, Retinoids, and ACTH;

- Low-grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma at Advanced Stage: A Case Successfully Treated With Cyclophosphamide Plus Somatostatin, Bromocriptine, Retinoids, and Melatonin;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 55 cases of Lymphomas;

- Large B-cells Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage IV-AE: a Case Report;

- Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Stage III-B-E: a Case Report;

- Neuroblastoma: Complete objective response to biological treatment;

- Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme (grade IV – WHO 2007): a case of complete objective response achieved by means of the concomitant administration of Somatostatin and Octreotide – Retinoids – Vitamin E – Vitamin D3 – Vitamin C – Melatonin – D2 R agonists (Di Bella Method – DBM) associated with Temozolomide;

- Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of the first-line treatment with somatostatin combined with melatonin, retinoids, vitamin D3, and low doses of cyclophosphamide in 20 cases of breast cancer: a preliminary report;

- The Di Bella Method (DBM) improved survival, objective response and performance status in a retrospective observational clinical study on 122 cases of breast cancer;

- Complete objective response to biological therapy of plurifocal breast carcinoma.